Vascular Surgery deals with diseases of all the blood vessels of the body, except for those inside the skull (Neurosurgery) and those of the heart (Cardiac Surgery). A vascular surgeon commonly deals with diseases of the arteries and veins. Today science and technology has advanced to a stage where there are treatment modalities available to prevent amputation and save many limbs. Just as angioplasty is possible to remove the blockages in the blood vessels of the heart and avoid bypass surgery, similarly angioplasty can be done for vessels going to the hands and legs and even to the brain. This is popularly known as a minimally-invasive surgery or Endovascular Surgery.
The specialty includes treatment for peripheral arterial occlusive disease (gangrene of the fingers or toes or non-healing ulcers on legs or hands), carotid diseases, aortic aneurysms/dissections, acute limb ischaemia(reduced blood supply), varicose vein surgery, treatment for DVT, arteriovenous malformations, and creation of dialysis access fistulas for renal failure patients. Because a large number of people with diabetes have blocked blood vessels leading to foot problems, vascular surgeons also deal with infection and gangrene problems of the foot in diabetics.